Proiect finanțat în cadrul Programului Operațional Regional și co-finanțat de Uniunea Europeană prin Fondul European pentru Dezvoltare Regională

gheorgheni

Geomorphology

View image

The limestone mass, which forms the Hășmaș mountains, had deposited in the Mesozoic Era. During its formation the deposit was broken off, the mountain rose, or submerged, and on the effect of the diastrophism it resulted huge fractures. This happened at the boundary of the Upper Triassic Period and the Late Jurassic Period, when the land rose and the erosion began. This process was followed by subsidence, then it continued the sedimentation. The uplifts happened again in the Hercynian section.These frequent uplifts, folding sections, fractures, faults, thrust faults in the Nesozoic Era led to the formation of the mountain. On the emerged lands the karstification process began simultaneously with the erosion.

The profuse precipitation in the Hășmaș mountains formed the mass of subaerial and subsurface karst features. In the huge basin of the Poiana Albă we can find dolines and sinks. In the Valea Seacă we find gradually sloping stone-caldrons, which are conected with narrow rock canals. The land abounds in subsurface karst phenomenons, there are several caves in the region, among which the most important are:

a.) Kotej-cave: it is situated in that part of the Hășmașul Negru, which looks in the direction of the Bicajel, 1240 metres height above sea level. The cave is easily traversable, it is 87 metres long, in which we can see interesting pillars covered with lublinite.

b.) Hășmașul Negru shaft cave: it is situated in that ridge of the Hășmașul Negru, which slopes towards the Trei Fântâni, 1250 metres height above sea level. One of its shafts, filled with snow, is 10 metres deep, the other one is 20 metres deep. One the side of the cave there is a dripstone-flow.

c.) Telecu Mare shaft cave: it is situated eastwards from the Poiana Albă, northwards from the Telecu peak, 1650 metres height above sea level. The cave begins with a 20 metres deep shaft, which is closed by a heap of snow. From here it starts a 8 metres long, mildly sloping passage,which leads to an other 9 metres long shaft, and to its bottom it slopes a narrow, clayish passage.

d.) Tolvaj-cave: it is situated in that part of the Szakadat peak, which looks in the direction of Nășcălat, 1200 metres height above sea level. It is a 50 metres deep tectonical cave, adorned with dripstone-flows.

e.) Licoș shaft cave: this legendary cave opens on the top of the Licoș peak. Its complete length is 50 metres, and it is divided into three, well separable parts. At its mouth the diameter of the cave is 8 metres long, at its narrowest part it is 3 metres long, and at its bottom is 9 metres long. At the bottom of a 34 metres long aven there is a 3 metres long ice-jam. In summer next to this ice-jam it froms a narrow opening, and through this you can get down to the lower cave, which depth is 17 metre and is closed by debris.

f.) The tectonical caves of the Vitoș peak: the Vitoș peak is situated northwards from the Pângăraț pass above the Putna stream. On its eastern side opens three shaft caves, whose depth is more than 10 metres.

g.) The caves of the Bicaz gorge: in the cliffs of the Red Lake-Bicaz gorge are 51 caves kept in evidence. Most of them are hard accesible, smaller caves, without any special dripstones. The longest caves are situated in the Peretele Bardosului opposite the Maria spring, like the Bardosului cave (-141 m), Cascada cave (-69), Flacăra cave (-242).

h.) Munticel-cave: it is situated in the eastern side of the Munticel rocks. This 40 metres long and 20 metres broad cave was discovered in 1973.