Proiect finanțat în cadrul Programului Operațional Regional și co-finanțat de Uniunea Europeană prin Fondul European pentru Dezvoltare Regională

gheorgheni

Ciumani

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ORAL TRADITION

On the castle hill of Ciumani could be an ancient castle, the eyry of "rabon" bans, as the hundred-year-old prooves of the continuance of the Székely people. People should have settled there at the age of Hunyadi János( mid 15th century). The first homestead has settled on the Farkasdomb (Hill of the Wolves), which owner was Inger János, then Csoma Ferenc from Kiskőrös. The settlement bears his name. According to Orbán Balázs the name of the settlement comes from the "Samu" name, but in his volume "Gyergyócsomafalva mono-gráfiája" Rokaly József contradicts this fact.

THE EARLY YEARS

The first settlements in the basin of Giurgeu were established at the beginning of the 13th century. The papal register of 1332 has already mentioned the settlements, like Joseni, Gheorgheni,Lăzarea and Suseni (its name then Katorzsa). The papal register of 1567 first mentioned this settlement as Chyomaffalwa. At that time it had 15 estates and around 200-300 inhabitants. By the church they belonged to Joseni. The oldest parts of the village: farkasdomb, Inczeloka, the central part of the main road, the later Csata-garden, Dávid-hill, Huszár street, the surroundings of the church (Alszeg, Déllő, Szoros and Szentmiklósi streets/ Korpos szege). The naming of Ciumani appears first in 1609.

PRINCIPALITY OF TRANSYLVANIA (1567-1691)

The territory of the village was enlarged by lumbering and by draining marshes. Gradually developed the system of the "nyilföldek". In 1596 was the "bloody carnival", when most of the inhabitants of Suseni, Ciumani, Joseni were killed by the troops of Apafi Mihály.Until 1642 the forge of Ciumani was the place of puddling ( Haba István's forge). In 1643 exclusively Székely people were living in Ciumani. In 1647 78 families were kept in evidence. After the Wallachian campaign in 1655, II. Rákoczy György honoured 8 men from Ciumani with the title of "lófő". In addition to the repeated plaque epidemic and starvation, the Turkish-Tatar devastations between 1658-1662 made the population of Transylvania and Székely land rare( 1658-Tatar-hill, the victory of the Székely people). The oldest surnames in Ciumani: Csoma, Dávid, Farkas, Incze, Nagy, Borsos, Tőke, Albert, Benedek, Lázár, Köllő, Dorgó, Simó, Domokos, Ráduly, Huszár, Elekes, Ambrus, Alszegi, Madarász (until 1604). The rural judge and the six jurors were chosen by the village gathering for one year.

THE HABSBURG DOMINATION (1691-1848)

Because of the imperial taxes the whole Székely land and Ciumani joined Rákoczy's War of Independence. According to the military registration of 1704 there 28 soldiers from Ciumani. Labanc troops and stealer troops from Moldova devastated in the villages of Giurgeu. Some place-names treasures the memories of the crucialities: Akasztófahely (Place of Gallows), Kén uttya or Kin útja (Way of sufferings). In 1708 the plaque epidemic devastated in Giurgeu. After the Rákóczy's War of Independence, the imperial domination (1712-1740) settled in the villages of Giurgeu.The first church in Ciumani was built in 1728 and in 1730 became independent in the point of view of the church. Its first pope was P. Tóbi Mihály( 1730-1732). Beginning from 1762 the young men from the villages were pressed into the army. They were regruted on the 1st of december 1763. On the 7th of january 1764 the Székely troops were massacred at Mádéfalva(SICULICIDIUM). In 1848-49 the whole Székely people supported the revolution gallantly. From Ciumani 216 officers and honvéd (Hungarian soldiers) took part in the revolution.

THE 20TH CENTURY

The village had 174 war hero in the First World War and 88 war hero in the Second World War, but the number of prisoniers and lost are much bigger. In 1920, by the Peace Treaty of Trianon Ciumani was taken under romanian suzerainty. Between the two World Wars people struggeled gallantly for the preservation of the instruction in the mother tongue. After 1946 the Communist Regim made the people's life miserable (persecution of the wealthy peasants -In Hungarian kulak-, forced collectivisation, forced-labour service, delivery to the state). The political transformation of 1989 brought a kind of renascence, but in the same time social tension, as well.